The Zambezi Protocol was developed on the banks of the river of that name at a meeting hosted by former Nigerian president Olusegun Obasanjo. Its opening lines state: "Africa’s mining sector is in crisis. At its root is a lack of trust between mining companies, governments and, indeed, the very nations they lead. A failure to tackle the crisis will result in serious, adverse implications for both economic growth and employment prospects at the moment when the continent’s needs are rapidly increasing."